The era of electrification

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Consumer adoption of electric vehicles has been slow, but larger automakers are still ramping up investments in electrification for the years to come.

And while startups are looking to make a name for themselves in EV development, claiming an expertise in new technology, many of the traditional players in the automotive world are still in the lead.

Ford Motor Co., after letting Tesla, Nissan and General Motors get a head start, is working to electrify many of its most popular nameplates and add some new ones, too. Jeep is putting a plug-in hybrid powertrain into its rugged Wrangler SUV next year, and Mercedes-Benz is launching an entire subbrand, called EQ, that will be populated by electrified versions of its vehicles starting in early 2020. Even most of the exotic brands are making electrification central to their plans over the next five years and beyond.

Here are the more than 100 electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles that Automotive News has reported as being in development and headed for debuts through 2023.

Karma Revero: A redesigned version of the former Fisker Karma, which starts at $135,000, the Revero sports two electric motors that drive the rear wheels. It can travel up to 80 miles on a single charge, plus about 280 miles more on a full tank of gasoline. Company officials say Revero production is underway at Karma’s Moreno Valley, Calif., plant and that customer deliveries will start this month.

Kia Niro: The fully electric version of the crossover arrived in 2019 with nearly 250 miles of range for electric enthusiasts in a dozen states. A mild freshening is coming for the 2020 model year, with sharper exterior looks and classier interior materials, based on the European version shown in March at the Geneva auto show.

Lincoln Aviator: A plug-in hybrid variant called the Aviator Grand Touring, which gets an impressive 494 hp and 630 pound-feet of torque, is coming by year end.

Mercedes-Benz GLC 350e: The GLC 350e plug-in hybrid was announced this year and will go on sale in the U.S. by late 2019.

Polestar 1: The 600-hp plug-in hybrid coupe has a 93-mile electric-only range, and pricing will start at $155,000. It began rolling off the line at the company’s Chengdu, China, plant in late August, with U.S. deliveries scheduled to follow shortly.

Porsche Taycan: Porsche’s first battery- electric sports car is true to the brand’s performance characteristics, with its top variant capable of 0 to 60 mph in 2.6 seconds and covering a quarter-mile in 10.8 seconds. The Taycan is the first production vehicle capable of charging at 800 volts and can refill its 93.4-kilowatt-hour lithium ion battery from 5 to 80 percent in 22.5 minutes using high-power chargers, with a maximum charging capacity of 270 kilowatts.

Aston Martin Rapide E: The limited-run EV made its auto show debut this spring in Shanghai. The Rapide E has an 800-volt electrical system encased in carbon fiber and Kevlar, with a 65-kWh capacity. The Rapide E boasts a little over 600 hp and 701 pound-feet of torque. The company has not said when production will begin, but it could arrive in 2020.

BMW 3 series: A revived 3-series plug-in hybrid is expected to appear by summer 2020.

BMW X3: A plug-in hybrid version of the X3, BMW’s volume leader, could arrive in 2020.

BMW X5: An updated plug-in hybrid version of the midsize crossover is expected in the second quarter of 2020. That model will be powered by a turbo inline-six engine, coupled with an electric motor, delivering a combined 394 hp. The PHEV will go from 0 to 62 mph in 5.6 seconds.

Chevrolet Bolt: GM’s first all-electric vehicle for the mass market is expected to get its first freshening in early 2020. The magnitude of those changes remains unclear, as the EV has become more important for the self-driving ride-hailing fleets that GM Cruise plans to operate than for consumers at this point.

Faraday Future FF 91: The swoopy-looking four-door would compete at the upper reaches of the luxury car market. Faraday claims the FF 91’s 1,050-hp electric motor can propel the car to 60 mph in less than three seconds. The driving range is claimed to be 378 miles on a charge. Fully loaded, the FF 91’s price would be around $200,000. But without financing, Faraday very likely won’t meet its goal of delivering its first vehicles a year from now.

Ford Escape: The fourth-generation Escape launched this summer with a sleeker design, and a plug-in hybrid variant is coming in spring 2020.

Ford Mach E: After years of ceding the EV market to the likes of Tesla and General Motors, Ford will enter the ring next year with a Mustang-inspired electric crossover that has a 300-mile range. The automaker will build the vehicle in Hermosillo, Mexico, after toying with producing it in Flat Rock, Mich. After floating the Mach 1 name early in its development — and irking Mustang faithful — Ford likely will opt for the Mach E moniker.

Hyundai Ioniq: Hyundai’s version of the modern eco-car comes in hybrid, plug-in hybrid and full-electric variants. It debuted for the 2018 model year and is ready for its first freshening, which may be unveiled as early as November at the Los Angeles Auto Show. Along with exterior tweaks and updated infotainment and safety technology, the EV version is likely to get a similar bump in power and range as the European edition. EV range should grow to around 150 miles from 124 miles thanks to a bigger 38-kWh battery.

Jeep Wrangler: The Wrangler, which was redesigned for the 2018 model year, will receive a plug-in hybrid option for the 2020 model year.

Kia Optima: A redesigned version of the car, which comes in hybrid and plug-in hybrid form as well, is likely to be shown next year and go on sale for the 2021 model year.

Kia Soul: Kia’s segment-straddling boxy car has been redesigned for the 2020 model year, and an updated version of the Soul EV is “coming soon,” the brand says. While the last Soul EV was hampered with short range, the new one gets the Niro EV’s 64-kWh battery good for 243 miles of range, according to the EPA. Kia’s commitment to electrification opens the door to hybrid or plug-in hybrid versions in the future.

Lincoln Corsair: A plug-in hybrid Grand Touring model will arrive next year.

Mercedes-Benz EQA: Daimler is developing a family of long-range EVs with standalone designs that will launch under the EQ subbrand. The EQA, an electric version of the GLA, should arrive in the U.S. in the second half of 2020. The hatchback is inspired by the Concept EQA shown at the 2017 Frankfurt auto show, which proposed a 60-kWh battery and up to 250 miles of driving range, based on European emissions tests.

Mercedes-Benz EQC: The EQC, Mercedes’ first electric compact crossover, will arrive in the U.S. in the first quarter of 2020. Powered by an 80-kWh battery, the EQC has an estimated range of 277 to 293 miles, based on the New European Driving Cycle. The crossover boasts acceleration from 0 to 60 mph in under five seconds. Two electric motors generate a combined 402 hp.

Mercedes-Benz GLA: The compact crossover will be redesigned in the second half of 2020. A plug-in hybrid is expected to begin production in 2020.

Mercedes-Benz GLB: Mercedes-Benz’s first seven-seat compact crossover, the GLB, will arrive at U.S. dealerships in late 2019. Plug-in hybrid and mild-hybrid versions could go into production in 2020.

Mini Cooper SE: The new full-electric Mini will go on sale in the U.S. in the first quarter of 2020. It’s powered by a 135-kW motor that delivers 181 hp and is capable of going from 0 to 62 mph in 7.3 seconds.

Polestar 2: The battery-electric fastback, inspired by the Volvo 40.2 concept car, will be Polestar’s first volume model, with 408 hp and an estimated range of 275 miles. The five-door car is based on Polestar’s compact modular platform, the same platform underpinning the Volvo XC40 crossover. Production begins in the first quarter of next year in China, with U.S. deliveries expected in the second quarter.

Porsche Cayenne: Plug-in hybrid versions of the Cayenne Coupe are planned for the first quarter of 2020.

Porsche Taycan: A sub-$100,000 base Taycan is planned for the second half of 2020 and is expected to offer a 79-kWh battery.

Rivian R1S/R1T: Rivian, backed by investments from Amazon, Ford and Cox Automotive, aims to begin selling the R1S electric SUV and R1T electric pickup about a year from now. They’ll be made at the former Mitsubishi plant in Normal, Ill.

Tesla Model S: Tesla CEO Elon Musk said he plans production of a seven-seat, three-motor Plaid variant of the Model S for late next year with performance beyond the sedan’s Ludicrous Mode.

Tesla Model Y: Tesla said the vehicle would debut in a 300-mile range version priced at $47,000, which is expected to go into production in the second half of 2020. A lower-priced, standard version with a 230-mile range will be available in the spring of 2021, Tesla said at the March launch.

Tesla Roadster: Tesla plans to produce a new version of its original nameplate late next year. The four-seat sports car will be priced at $200,000, although Tesla said the first 1,000 built, which it calls the Founders Series, will sell for $250,000. During the car’s 2017 reveal, Musk said it would give a “hardcore smackdown to gasoline cars” with a 0-to-60-mph time of 1.9 seconds, a 620-mile range and a top speed of more than 250 mph.

Tesla Semi: Production of the semi truck, unveiled in 2017, has been pushed to 2020, although questions about where it will be built remain. Tesla plans to offer a 300-mile range version for $150,000 and a 500-mile version for $180,000.

Volkswagen ID4: The electric crossover, shown with heavy camouflage at the Frankfurt auto show last month, has a more traditional shape than the ID Crozz concept on which it’s based. U.S. dealers are scheduled to see it on their lots in late 2020.

Volvo XC40: A plug-in hybrid variant should arrive in the first half of next year. An all-electric XC40 is planned for the second half of 2020.

Audi e-tron GT: The full-electric sportback sedan, first shown at the Los Angeles Auto Show last November as a concept, will join Audi’s U.S. lineup in 2021.

Audi Q4 e-tron: The full-electric compact crossover is a new model expected to join the lineup in 2021 as Audi’s third battery-electric vehicle.

BMW i4: The EV will launch in the first half of 2021, promising more than 300 miles of battery range. The sporty four-door coupe is based on the i Vision Dynamics concept unveiled at the 2017 Frankfurt auto show. The i4, built on BMW’s lightweight modular CLAR platform, will be capable of doing 0 to 60 mph in four seconds.

BMW iNext: The new battery-electric crossover will arrive in the U.S. in 2021. It will likely be badged i6 and come in three versions, including rear-wheel-drive and all-wheel-drive variants, according to Automobile. The base version will be powered by a 63-kWh battery pack and deliver 335 hp and 285 miles of range.

BMW iX3: The battery-electric variant of the X3 should go on sale in early 2021 and will feature an electric motor free of rare earth elements. It is expected to have a 270-hp electric motor and a 70-kWh battery delivering a range of over 200 miles.

Bollinger B1/B2: Startup Bollinger Motors has lined up a contract manufacturer to assemble at least the first year’s production of about 1,000 total units of the B1 and B2, the boxy electric street-legal off-road vehicles the company has designed and engineered in-house. It’s aiming to start selling them in 2021.

Byton M-Byte: At the Frankfurt auto show last month, Chinese automaker Byton showed its first production-ready vehicle, the M-Byte, a battery-powered crossover with a curved 48-inch screen stretching across the instrument panel. If the company’s plans stay on track, Byton will begin delivering the M-Byte to Chinese customers in less than a year and then to customers in North America and Europe in 2021.

Chevy Bolt-based crossover: A Bolt-based crossover is finally expected to arrive for the U.S. in 2021, likely after it hits the market in China as a Buick. Spy shots of the vehicle show the design appears to be a mix of the Bolt and Chevrolet Trax.

Ford F-150: The automaker made waves this year when it showcased an F-150 EV prototype towing more than 1 million pounds. Expect a battery-electric F-150 in 2021.

Genesis electric sedan: The brand said last year that it planned to bring an electric sedan with a 310-mile range to market in 2021, joining the increasingly crowded pool of would-be Tesla competitors.

Hyundai Kona: New for the 2018 model year, the popular subcompact crossover could get a freshening as early as 2021. A full-electric version with an EPA estimated range of 258 miles arrived for 2019. Unlike the Kia Niro that shares its platform, the Kona apparently is not in line to get a hybrid or plug-in hybrid variant. Hyundai is more likely to use its resources for a midsize EV platform it could share with Kia and luxury sibling Genesis.

Jaguar E-Pace: Look for a freshened version of Jaguar’s smallest crossover in 2021 with an electrified powertrain.

Jaguar J-Pace: For the 2022 model year, Jaguar is expected to add a new three-row crossover to broaden its utility vehicle portfolio. Hybrid versions will be available as part of JLR’s pledge to offer electrified powertrains in all its vehicles starting next year. A battery-electric version is possible. The J-Pace will ride on the same MLA architecture as the next Land Rover Range Rover.

Jaguar XJ: The XJ nameplate is scheduled to return as a Tesla Model S-fighting battery-electric sedan in 2021 on the new Jaguar Land Rover MLA platform. It likely will use many of the drivetrain components in the I-Pace crossover as JLR moves to commonize its EV components among a larger number of vehicles to rein in costs. The British magazine Car reported that the electric XJ will be a sleek five-door liftback model with fold-down rear seats.

Jeep Grand Cherokee: A plug-in hybrid version should be available by the third quarter of 2021.

Kia Niro: A redesign should happen in 2021 for the 2022 model year.

Land Rover Range Rover: A redesigned Range Rover on a new lightweight architecture is due in late 2021, with mild-hybrid and plug-in hybrid versions available.

Land Rover Range Rover Evoque: Redesigned for the 2020 model year, the smallest Range Rover is riding on a new architecture that has been designed to accept a battery-electric drivetrain. That version could arrive by 2021.

Land Rover Range Rover Sport: A lightly freshened 2020 model with the new Ingenium inline six-cylinder engine with stop-start and mild-hybrid system is on sale. A redesign, including a battery-electric version, could appear in late 2021.

Maserati GranTurismo: The coupe and convertible will be replaced by two full-electric models. Maserati did not give specific timing, but they are expected around 2021.

Maserati midsize crossover: A plug-in hybrid version of a new crossover is expected.

McLaren plug-in hybrid: Spy photos from this year spotted a camouflaged 720S with stickers on it proclaiming “hybrid.” The plug-in hybrid, which will be a separate nameplate, could arrive within two years.

Mercedes-Benz EQB: An electric version of the GLB compact crossover could arrive in 2021. It will ride on the MFA2 platform.

Nissan electric crossover: Nissan has confirmed an all-electric crossover will join the Leaf EV. The crossover, expected to arrive in late 2021, would be one of eight new battery-powered models that are planned. It is inspired by the IMx concept that debuted at the Tokyo auto show in 2017 and will offer more than 300 miles of driving range and be built on a new architecture. A near-production version is anticipated for a reveal at Tokyo this year.

Nissan Leaf: Nissan caught up with the competition after it unveiled a longer-range version of the Leaf in January. That 2019 Nissan Leaf e+ comes with a 62-kWh battery pack and a respectable range of 226 miles. The standard Leaf, updated last year, should see a redesign in 2021. The next-gen model will be built on a new EV platform that will be shared by alliance partners Renault and Mitsubishi.

Subaru Crosstrek: The subcompact crossover became Subaru’s first plug-in hybrid model sold in the U.S. with the addition of the Crosstrek Hybrid for the 2019 model year.

Tesla small vehicle: Musk last year said Tesla could build a small vehicle priced at $25,000 around 2021.

Alfa Romeo Tonale: Revealed at this year’s Geneva auto show as a plug-in hybrid concept, the crossover could arrive in 2022.

Aston Martin Lagonda SUV: The Lagonda All-Terrain Concept was unveiled in Geneva this year, previewing what a production model could look like for the first model from Aston Martin’s full-electric brand. The Lagonda SUV will go on sale in 2022.

BMW i8: BMW plans to end production of the current i8 plug-in hybrid in April, but a replacement model may be expected in 2022. It will be inspired by the Vision M Next concept, a 600-hp plug-in hybrid that offers a choice of electric awd and pure rwd, with full-electric propulsion or the power of a turbocharged four-cylinder gasoline engine.

Buick EV: Buick could use the name Enspire for an all-electric vehicle for the U.S. as early as 2022 or 2023, but the vehicle likely would appear first in China. Buick debuted a well-received Enspire concept at last year’s Beijing auto show that featured a 370-mile range and 0-to-60-mph performance of four seconds.

Cadillac flagship EV: An all-electric flagship vehicle is expected for Cadillac around 2022. It could follow a luxury trend of having a crossover silhouette with the underpinnings, performance and handling of a car.

Cadillac midsize electric crossover: A global all-electric crossover, expected to be the first vehicle on GM’s next-generation BEV3 platform for the U.S., is expected to take heavy design cues from a rendering that was shown by Cadillac for the 2019 Detroit auto show. It could launch in China before coming stateside in 2022 and begin a rapid cadence of EVs for the brand.

Cadillac compact electric crossover: Compact and large electric crossovers are expected to flank the midsize electric crossover, beginning with a compact model as early as 2022.

Chevrolet compact electric crossover: A Chevy compact electric crossover, similar in size to the Equinox, is expected in 2022.

Ford/Lincoln midsize electric crossovers: Ford and Lincoln midsize battery-electric crossovers are planned for the 2023 model year, as Automotive News first reported last month. The vehicles will be built in Flat Rock, with production starting in late 2022 or early 2023. The Ford vehicle will be similar in size to the current Edge, although it will sit on a dedicated battery-electric vehicle platform.

Hyundai Ioniq: A redesign should come two to three years after the freshened version goes on sale in 2020.

Infiniti Q50: Infiniti’s volume sedan is to be redesigned in 2022. The next-gen Q50 could switch to an electrified platform based on the Qs Inspiration Concept, which debuted in April at the Shanghai auto show.

Infiniti electric crossover: An electric crossover is likely in 2022. It will be based on the QX Inspiration Concept shown in January at the Detroit auto show. The concept envisioned a new electric vehicle architecture and offered an electric awd system. The concept’s grilleless front fascia was dominated by an illuminated Infiniti logo that was bookended by channels to divert air over and around the body. Thin headlight strips featured laserlike etchings, with a technical pattern echoed throughout the vehicle interior and exterior. The steering wheel collapsed into the dashboard and the pedals retracted into the floor when the vehicle was in self-driving mode.

Jaguar I-Pace: A freshened model of the battery-electric crossover is due around 2022.

Maserati Levante: A freshening of Maserati’s first crossover could occur in early 2022, with a plug-in hybrid version also expected around that time. A full electric model also is possible.

Mercedes-Benz EQE: An electric version of the E-class sedan is in the pipeline for 2022.

Mini Cooper SE: A redesign is expected in 2022.

Mini electric microcar: Mini could launch a three-door, electric-powered hatchback in 2022, based on the Rocketman Concept, according to Autocar. The new model would be made in China via a joint venture between BMW and Great Wall Motors Co.

Nissan Maxima: The Maxima is expected to be replaced with an EV inspired by the IMs “elevated sports sedan” concept shown at the 2019 Detroit auto show. That EV could arrive in 2022.

Polestar 3: The crossover coupe is based on the next generation of Volvo’s Scalable Product Architecture platform. Production will begin at the end of 2021, with U.S. deliveries in mid-2022.

Porsche 718 Boxster/Cayman: Electric versions are expected in 2022, based on the Premium Platform Electric platform.

Porsche Macan: Porsche’s best-selling vehicle in the U.S. will go all-electric when it is redesigned. Production of the second-generation, battery-powered compact crossover will begin “early in the next decade” in Leipzig, Germany, and it should go on sale in 2022.

Tesla Model S: A long-awaited Model S redesign is expected in 2022.

Tesla Pickup: Tesla is expected to formally announce its pickup before year end, with production beginning in early 2022. Musk has claimed it will have a 500-mile range and be able to tow 300,000 pounds.

Volvo S60: A freshening of the compact sedan, which was redesigned last year and offers two versions of Volvo’s plug-in hybrid powertrain, could come in 2022.

Aston Martin Lagonda sedan: Lagonda, Aston Martin’s full-electric brand, will get a sedan offering in 2023, a year after the SUV goes on sale.

Audi e-tron Quattro crossover: The battery-electric crossover went on sale in early 2019 in the U.S. to lead Audi’s bid to capture EV market share in the premium segment. It will be due for a freshening in 2023.

Bentley EV: Bentley has not revealed which body style its first EV will have, but the company plans for the EV to arrive in 2023. Bentley unveiled an EV concept in July in the form of the EXP 100 GT. But the brand said that concept was intended to illustrate luxury motoring in 2035, when autonomous technology and long-range battery power will go hand in hand.

Cadillac large electric crossover: The brand’s third, and biggest, electric crossover will come in 2023.

GM electric pickup: GM executives have said an electric pickup is in the works, but there’s not much more to say than that at this point. Whether the pickup will be powered by fuel cells, which was previously rumored, or a battery also remains in question. The zero-emission truck is expected no earlier than 2023.

Infiniti QX70: The discontinued midsize crossover will reincarnate in 2023 on Infiniti’s electrified platform.

Lincoln Aviator: The Aviator and its Grand Touring plug-in hybrid variant could be freshened in 2023.

Lincoln Corsair: The Corsair and its plug-in hybrid variant will be due for a freshening in late 2023.

Mercedes-AMG E 63: Expect a high-performance plug-in hybrid version of the redesigned E class in 2023.

Mini Clubman: The Clubman is due for a redesign in 2023, when a plug-in hybrid variant also might arrive.

Tesla Model X: Tesla’s sole crossover was expected to get an interior redesign this year, but Musk said in July it would instead get a series of “minor ongoing changes.” A full redesign could come in 2023.

Toyota Prius/Prius Prime: Toyota’s trailblazing hybrid and its plug-in variant received a mild freshening in 2019 to accompany the addition of an awd version due this year. Despite waning sales amid the proliferation of electrification alternatives, the Prius is expected to undergo one more freshening/intervention, likely in 2023, given Toyota product cycles.

Toyota-Subaru battery-electric crossover: The two automakers are jointly developing a battery-electric platform to underpin crossovers and sedans that are midsize and larger. The timing of these crossovers is still unclear amid some reports that they could be ready in Japan in late 2021. However, an appearance in the U.S. in 2023 looks more likely.

Volkswagen EV: A third Volkswagen EV will be a version of the ID Vizzion concept sedan and possibly arrive in 2023.

Volkswagen ID Buzz: The retro-styled three-row electric minivan is due in the U.S. in 2023.

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